Monday, January 13, 2020

Tsingtao Beer Case Study

Consumer buying behavior Consumer behavior of purchasing beer is definitely emotional and of low involvement. The pleasure and gratification getting from drinking beer can be sensual but fleeting. When making purchase decisions, consumers hardly spend any time to recognize problems or to search information because when they feel like drinking, they will just buy some. Generally speaking, customers keep loyal to their favorite beer brand. In fact, many of my friends have told me that Yanjing Beer tastes the worst among all they have tried and even though it’s relatively cheap, they are not likely to buy it after first try.As you can see, among all the brand attributes of beer, the price is not a significant concern while taste, which can lead to brand value, matters much more. Once customers have recognized the nice taste of a certain beer brand, probably they are never going to switch brand and all the beer decisions they make later will be regular purchases. Beer market segme ntation The bases I choose for segmenting the Chinese beer market include age, gender, income level, life style, user rate and geographic area. All these factors matter in that they determine the different consumer behavior of drinking beer, as concluded in Table 1.AgeFrom 18 to 60 Young customers at 20-35 have strong potential GenderMen and women Women might drink beer less often than men or choose light flavor, out of concern of weight control Income levelFrom low to high-middle Income does not matter a lot due to beer’s relatively low price compared with other alcohol LifestyleWith leisure time and maybe some pressure User rateLight drinker, medium drinker, heavy drinker Geographic areaNortheast, southeast, northwest, southwest and middle Some areas have notable drinking habits such as northeast China. Besides, there is a tendency for people to choose their local beer brand.Table 1. Competitive landscape and Tsingtao’s status China is the largest beer producer throu ghout the world. Many local Chinese brands as well as foreign competitors are engaged in the competition. There are three main characteristics about the competitive landscape of Chinese beer market. First of all, price war is the main competitive tactic used by most local brewery brands. Not only small regional brands, but also large brands like Yanjing are entangled in price war. In general, price war does not lead to a favorable market position for any company because their profit margins will definitely be influenced.And most importantly, as I have mentioned before, price is not a significant factor that people will consider when buying beer. If companies put too much emphasis on lowering price through lowering cost rather than improving taste and quality, it will not work to their advantage in the long run. Secondly, there is a trend of foreign companies buying local brewers’ stock, meaning that foreign competitors are flooding into Chinese market in a more strategic way. Tsingtao’s collaboration with Anheuser-Busch is a case in point. It facilitates mutual learning and internationalization.The third characteristic might be a future trend that the consolidation and centralization level of Chinese beer market will become higher. With regard to Tsingtao Beer, it is one of the gigantic tiers of China beer brewers. Its competitive advantage is the superior quality due to unparalleled brewery techniques. According to the consumer survey results posted on its website, customers perceive Tsingtao beer as high quality and high price. In general, the fierce competitive marketplace has influenced Tsingtao a little but I think its established brand image is still far from being hurt.Positioning alternatives for Tsingtao Tsingtao’s positioning alternatives are whether to get more low-price market or to adhere to the current â€Å"high quality, high price† strategy, especially when it penetrates into Beijing market and compete with the local giant Yanjing. In my opinion, Tsingtao can adopt a multibrand strategy to fulfill needs of different target markets. For people who have great concern about price, Tsingtao can lower the price as a response to the local price war. For other people, however, Tsingtao should never pursue more sales at the expense of quality.To implement this strategy, Tsingtao has to do a complete consumer survey and then better segment the market. In the segmentation process, income level and geographic area might be the two most important bases. Besides, Tsingtao has to improve its advertising and packaging because beer is low- involvement and emotional product. As is mentioned in the case, nowadays the main reason for consumers to buy a certain brand of beer is brand image and the culture attached to the brand. I think Reeb beer, based in Shanghai, has done a great job in this part, although Reeb is just a small regional brand compared with Tsingtao.I remember when I was a primary school student, Reeb’s TV commercial was an interesting song. The lyrics were mainly saying that Reeb has witnessed the quick development of Shanghai and people’s great change after the opening policy of Pudong District (See the appendix). And at the end of the commercial, it said â€Å"Reeb beer is the reason why you love Shanghai†. Almost everyone from Shanghai of my age or older than me can sing this song and the attachment with this city definitely has enhanced Reeb’s brand image. I think Tsingtao might learn from Reeb to improve its advertising.

Friday, December 27, 2019

European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative...

European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-2275 Issue 11 (2008)  © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008 Testing Capital Structure Theories: Are the Models’ Assumptions Correctly Specified? Carmen Cotei Department of Economics, Finance and Insurance University of Hartford, 200 Bloomfield Ave., West Hartford, CT, 06117, USA E-mail: Joseph Farhat Department of Finance Central Connecticut State University, 1615 Stanley St., New Britain, CT 06050, USA E-mail: Abstract In this study, we investigate the models used in testing the trade-off and pecking order theories. Specifically, we examine the symmetric behavior assumption and homogeneous coefficient†¦show more content†¦The pecking order model assumes that the distribution of informational asymmetry is homogeneous across different industries. To examine the adequacy of the two assumptions under each theory, first we classify firms into industries, using Fama and French industry classification; this enables us to control for the nonhomogeneity of the firms’ characteristics across industries and the temporal distribution of informational asymmetry among industries; second, we use a spline regression model to test for the symmetric behavior assumption. The results show that the symmetrical rate of adjustment assumption under the trade-off model is rejected across all industries; firms tend to adjust faster toward the target leverage when they are above the target relative to when the y are below the target leverage. We find no evidence to support the homogeneous coefficient across industries as the adjustment rate varies significantly across industries. For the pecking order model, we reject the symmetric behavior assumption at the industry level as well as across all industries. Firms have the tendency to reduce debt by a significantly higher proportion when they have financing surplus comparing to the proportion of debt issued when they have financing deficit. 2. The Trade-Off Theory The trade-off models have dominated the capital structure literature. The taxShow MoreRelatedBudget and Budgetary Control for Improved Performance: a Consideration for Selected Food and Beverages Companies in Nigeria4782 Words   |  20 PagesEuropean Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-2275 Issue 12 (2008)  © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008 Budget and Budgetary Control for Improved Performance: A Consideration for Selected Food and Beverages Companies in Nigeria Ishola Rufus Akintoye Room 116, Department of Economics, Faculty of the Social Sciences University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, West Africa Tel: 234-8035369293, 8082130269 E-mail: Abstract Budget andRead MoreInternational Human Resource Management3727 Words   |  15 PagesEuropean Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-2275 Issue 29 (2011)  © EuroJournals, Inc. 2011 Current Trends and Future Directions of Human Resource Management Practices: A Review of Literature Ogunyomi, O. 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Thursday, December 19, 2019

Risk and Quality Management - 1659 Words

Risk and Quality Management Assessment Summary Kelly Hennessey HCS/451 02/18/2012 Lauri Rose Risk and Quality Management Assessment Summary Evergreen Woods health and rehabilitation center is located in Spring Hill Florida. The center has been serving Hernando County for over 25 years. Services that the center offers are: Post-acute services, Rehabilitative services, skilled nursing, Short and long term care through physical, occupational and speech therapists. The mission of Evergreen Woods health and rehabilitation center is to provide comprehensive services to meet the care of the residents and patients. They strive to meet customer satisfaction daily and follow core values to obtain excellence in care. Risk management serves†¦show more content†¦The last risk would be financial issues due to insurance issues. â€Å"Of 10 million Americans nearly 7 million of them being over 65 rely on some level of assisted care† (Weston 2012). This number does not include the number of people that are under the age of 65. Many people that rely on long term care live on disability or social security. These people are living on extremely limited income put them and their families in mental distress trying to figure out how to pay for the needed care. â€Å"Medicare provides only 100 days of care following hospitalization† (Weston 2012). After the 100 days it then becomes the responsibility of the patient to either pay out of their pocket or use a supplemental insurance. For many this is an issue as they do not have any other insurance nor do they have the finances to afford this care on their own. With patients under Medicaid insurance there is still an issue â€Å"Medicaid p rovides long term care, but only after a patient has deplete his/her finances† (Weston 2012). So how does this affect the organization itself, now with lack of insurance you run the risk of not being paid for services already rendered. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Key Space Mission Viking Mission to Mars - Solution is just click awa

Question: Describe The Viking dual orbiter/lander mission to Mars.and give an account of the mission,describing the challenges it had to overcome and the missions. achievements. Answer: Introduction The Viking project of NASA was specifically a culmination of the missions that were originally explored to the mars and has begun in the year 1964 along with the help of Mariner 4. The continued services of the Mariner in the 7 and the 6 fly bags the entire mariner 9 orbited its mission in the year 1972 and 1971. The space ship Vikings found that there is a special place of the satellite in the history of the world as it became the first American satellite or mission to land as a spaceship successfully on the surface of Mars. There are basically two spaceships that are quite identical and at the same time consist of several Landers and orbiters that were built during the mission (Apak 2008, p. 187). All the orbiters and the Landers flew along with each other like a pair and entered into the mars orbit without any problem. Then Landers descended downwards to the surface of the planet and the orbiter was also separated at the same time. Mission Design Both the orbiter and the Lander were launched from Florida right on 20th August 1975 that was the release date of Viking 1 and 9th September 1975 that was the release of Viking 2. The orbiter and the Landers were sterilized perfectly before the launch so that it can be prevented from all types of contamination for the organisms that are present on the surface of the Mars. The first spaceship that is the Viking 1 reached mars on June 19, 1976 and the second one that is the orbiter reached mars on August 7, 1976. After the astronauts went through all the photographs it was figured out that the site of the mars were actually certified by the verification department of the Viking team which was considered after completing the proposed landing test (Zimbelman and Others 1997, p. 4161). The spaceship Viking 1 was considered to be unsafe as the team members considered and examined the landing area on July 20, 1976. The main reason behind this problem was the western slope that consisted on the plains of Planitia that is also considered as the plains of gold at a northern degree of 22.3 latitude and 48.0 longitudes. Hence the team decided to shift the landing site of Viking 2 that was examined to be unsafe along with the photos that proved it be quite unsafe. The Viking mission was planned to be continued after 90 days of Landing. But both the Lander and the Orbiter lasted a much longer time that it was expected which was around 4 years. Viking Orbiters The Viking spaceship consisted of two space shuttles. One was the Orbiter and the other was the Lander. Both the spaceships weighted nearly 2325 kilograms and also consists a Lander in both of them that weighted nearly 576 kilograms. The design of the spaceship was also influenced by the size of the Landers that were huge and at the same time was highly acclaimed by the inventors and they were also pretty sure that both the spaceship would definitely last for a much longer time (Minelli and Others 2004, p. 255-262). The design of the Mariner was modeled according to the planetary spacecrafts that were designed for the surface mission. The requirements of the lifetime orbiters were dependent to be nearly 90 days or 120 days after their successful landing. These orbiters were also considered to be one of the best at that time as all the landing criteria were involved with the petition of the team that were actually handling all the consequences of the programs that were involved in the program accordingly. The orbiters also contained the control sub system that was also operated with the help of the inertia mode along with several yaw control specifications and pitches. The attitude control system was also aligned with the engine burns that were provided by the control system and the auto pilot section are the ones that used to command the engine in all types of problems (Palluconi and Others 1977, p. 4249-4291). The sun lock system also was lost along with the control system that can automatically align the spacecrafts and result in the loss of the Canopus sub system. The members of the team waited for the signal and then just turned on the gas supply section for the other subsystem and the Lander subsystem. Viking Landers The Lander spacecrafts were build up of five systems that were the Lander body, the bio shield cap, the base section, the aero shell subsystem and the parachute system. The complete Lander measured nearly 3 meters and weighted nearly 576 kilograms that is nearly 1270 pounds without fuel injection. The body of the Lander was built on a raised platform that is filled with scientific operators and subsystem. The box inside the Lander was completely built of aluminum and titanium alloys that can be insulated in the fiberglass system and along with a cloth that will protect the space ship from losing the heat content of the system (Klein 1979, p. 1655). The entire spaceship is covered with plates right from the top to the bottom. The body of the Lander was supported by the three specific legs that were also attached to the bottom corner of the body and the legs provided the air ship with and edge and a ground clearance of nearly 22 centimeters. The legs were usually connected to the main strut right from the frame assembly in all prospects. The terminal landing radar were measured at a huge velocity for the Landers in the landing phase of the spaceship and it was also directly located to the system that was nearly 12 Kilometers above the surface level and consisted of four Doppler radar that helped the entire unit to calculate the essentials factors of the mission and the prospect that there is still life contented on earth and the other structures that combined all the features that are beneficial for the system and for mankind. The above mission is also considered to be one of the most decisive moments in history. Knowledge research Viking mission or project of was the result or the outcomes of the Mars mission. The NASA was construct two different kind of spacecraft or spaceship namely Viking 1 and Viking 2. The Viking 1 and Viking 2 is constructing by the help of the different components according to their works like photography as well as knowing the surface of the Mars (Klein 1974, p. 431-441). The Viking Orbiter was constructor propose for the photography of the Mars as well as for the Lander propose for the knowing and collecting the surface information of the Mars. After the landing of Viking 1 and Viking 2, the Viking 2 (Viking Lander 2) was identify the surface of the Mars as well as collecting lost of information and data. The Viking 2 was also recording wind velocity of the landing surface of the Mars. According to the Viking 2 (Viking Lander 2) some microorganism was present in the surface of the Mars (Landing area of the Viking 1 as well as Viking 2) but there was no clear identification or evidence for the microorganism. The Viking 2 (Viking Lander 2) was also detected the soli (Martine Soil) of the Mars. According to the provided data of the Viking Mission or the Viking 2 (Viking Lander 2), The Mars is self sterilizing. According to the Viking Mission or Viking 2 (Viking Lander 2) provided data, the researchers groups or teams was identify the nature of the soil of Mars or Martine soil as well as they was also describe that, the solar UV (Ultraviolet) radiation of the surface of the Mars are much more respect of the surface of the Earth (Levin and Others 1976, p. 24-27). For that reason the soil or the Martine soil of the Mars are more dry respect of the soil of the Earth or surface of the Earth. The Martine soil or the soil of the Mars are acute dry as well as according to the chemistry or the researchers group or teams it is define that the soil of the Mars or the Martine soli are oxidizing character or oxidation in nature, which is formally shows that the microorganism or living organism are present in Mars. The Viking Team The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is government agency of the United State (US). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are responsible for space program as well as researches about the aerospace and aeronautics. The Viking Mission (Viking 1 and Viking 2) was also controlling and managing by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (Mac Carron and Kenna 2013, p. 12-17). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA was fully manage and controlling the whole Viking Mission or Program (Viking 1 and Viking 2) from beginning of the mission 1968 to 1st April, 1978. Various leaders of the scientific team were also included in the Viking Team and included Mr. Michael Carr that represented the geological survey of India. Then Mr. Melon park who was the team leader of the imagining orbiter investigation department. There was also an involvement of Dr Crofton that is the leader of the wat er structure mapping system and Mr. Hugh who is involved with the space department and is from the University of California. There were also members from the Los Angeles team headed by Sir Alfred Nier from the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis (Margulis and Others, 1978). There were also people from the science entry system of investigation that included Dr Thomas from the Mutch of Brown University and also the team leader of the imagining investigation department that also included all the members that are deeply associated with space science and Astronomy to a great extent. Conclusion The Viking Mission or Program (Viking 1 and Viking 2) was managing and controlling by the government organization National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of United State (US). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were also collecting all the data as well as information like photography by Viking Orbits and surface data or soil information by Viking Lander (Mudgway, 1983). According to the Viking 1 as well as Viking 2 data or information set, it is clear that the soil or Martine soil of the mars is more dry respect of the Earth soil. The Martine soil or the soil of the Mars is consisting by the help of some rich iron substances or elements, which is containing extremely oxidizing element or substances. The oxidizing substance or extremely rich iron clay is provided or releasing oxygen when it is wet, therefore it is clear that the microorganisms or micro compounds are present in Mars but Viking 1 as well as Viking 2 was didnt provide any evidence. The Viking 1 as well as Viking 2 just provided some basic data ort information. The Viking 1 as well as Viking 2 was also provided some basic data of the Mars surface like Martine soil or the Martine surface of Mars are didnt containing any type of organic molecules. It is measurable by the part per billion level of the soil or Martine soil of the Mars, which is quite less than the respect of Moon surface or soil (soil sample containing by the Apollo) (Meyer 2012, p. 3-4). According to the Viking 1 and Viking 2 data set or information it was clear that the atmospheric pressure of the Mars surface is differ by 30% for the period of the Martine year, because the carbon dioxide (CO2) was compress as well as sublimes at the polar caps of the Mars surface. In the Viking mission or program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team was observed that the radio signals was coming late or delay in between the receiver and Viking 1 as well as Viking 2. After some words it was observed that the delay of the radioactive signals due to the gravitational field of the Sun. References 3.9. Extended viking mission to Mars termed successful. (1982). COSPAR Information Bulletin, 1982(94), pp.66-67. Anon, (2015). [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 Jan. 2015]. Apak, R. (2008). Life detection experiments of the Viking Mission on Mars can be best interpreted with a Fenton oxidation reaction composed of H2O2 and Fe2+ and iron-catalysed decomposition of H2O2. Int.Jnl Astrobiol., 7(3-4), p.187. Cattermole, P. (2001). Mars. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Corliss, W. (1974). The Viking mission to Mars. Washington: Scientific and Technical Information Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Corliss, W. (1975). The Viking mission to Mars. Washington: Scientific and Technical Information Office, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Craddock, R., Crumpler, L., Aubele, J. and Zimbelman, J. (1997). Geology of central Chryse Planitia and the Viking 1 landing site: Implications for the Mars Pathfinder mission. J. Geophys. Res., 102(E2), p.4161. Frigeri, A., Federico, C., Pauselli, C. and Minelli, G. (2004). Identifying Wrinkle Ridges from Mars MGS and Viking Mission Data: Using GRASS GIS in Planetary Geology. Transactions in GIS, 8(2), pp.255-262. Kieffer, H., Martin, T., Peterfreund, A., Jakosky, B., Miner, E. and Palluconi, F. (1977). Thermal and albedo mapping of Mars during the Viking primary mission. J. Geophys. Res., 82(28), pp.4249-4291. Klein, H. (1974). Automated life-detection experiments for the Viking mission to Mars. Origins of Life, 5(3-4), pp.431-441. Klein, H. (1979). The Viking mission and the search for life on Mars. Rev. Geophys., 17(7), p.1655. Klein, H., Lederberg, J., Rich, A., Horowitz, N., Oyama, V. and Levin, G. (1976). The Viking Mission search for life on Mars. Nature, 262(5563), pp.24-27. Mac Carron, P. and Kenna, R. (2013). Viking sagas: Six degrees of Icelandic separation Social networks from the Viking era. Significance, 10(6), pp.12-17. Margulis, L., Mazur, P., Barghoorn, E., Halvorson, H., Jukes, T. and Kaplan, I. (1979). The Viking mission: Implications for life on Mars. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 14(1-3), pp.223-232. Mazur, P., Barghoorn, E., Halvorson, H., Jukes, T., Kaplan, I. and Margulis, L. (1978). Biological implications of the Viking mission to Mars. Space Sci Rev, 22(1). Meyer, M. (2012). Foreword: Mars Science Laboratory, the First Astrobiology Mission to Mars Since Viking. Space Sci Rev, 170(1-4), pp.3-4. Mudgway, D. (1983). Telecommunications and data acquisition systems support for the Viking 1975 mission to Mars. Pasadena, Calif.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. NIER, A. and MCELROY, M. (1976). Structure of the Neutral Upper Atmosphere of Mars: Results from Viking 1 and Viking 2. Science, 194(4271), pp.1298-1300. Snyder, C. (1979). The planet Mars as seen at the end of the Viking Mission. J. Geophys. Res., 84(B14), p.8487. Snyder, C. and Evans, N. (1981). The final phases of the Viking mission to Mars. Icarus, 45(1), pp.2-24. SOFFEN, G. and SNYDER, C. (1976). The First Viking Mission to Mars. Science, 193(4255), pp.759-766. Thorpe, T. (1979). A history of Mars atmospheric opacity in the Southern Hemisphere during the Viking extended mission. J. Geophys. Res., 84(A11), p.6663. Veverka, J., Thomas, P. and Greeley, R. (1977). A study of variable features on Mars during the Viking primary mission. J. Geophys. Res., 82(28), pp.4167-4188. Vogt, G. (1991). Mars landing and the Viking. Brookfield, Conn.: Millbrook Press.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Urbanization of the Human Population free essay sample

Urbanization is the concentration of people in towns and cities, this marks a fundamental step in mans social evolution. Cities first appeared some 5,500 years ago they were both small and overcrowded. Today the biggest cities in the world accommodate most people due to urban agglomeration (e. g. 7% of the American nations land accommodated 70% of the nation in 1960). This saw a high degree of social complexity and interactment as never imagined before. During the 1850s no society was predominantly urbanized but by 1900 Britain became the first. A mere 65 years all industrial nations were highly urbanized. During the period of 1950 to 1960 the fastest growth rate of urbanization occurred and 33% of the worlds population lived in urban areas by the end of this period. In the past population of cities and towns were given by the number of people living within political boundaries. This became very inaccurate after the First World War for people have been moving over these boundaries. We will write a custom essay sample on The Urbanization of the Human Population or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Competition caused specialization in cities as well as technological innovation. This led to cities having to invest in education and academics to satisfy this need. The biggest break through for urbanization was because of developments in energy, technology and machinery advancements. This caused the proportion of the population living in urban areas to increase by four times in a single century. The later a country experienced industrialization the faster it was urbanized. Modern urbanization is closely related to economic growth. When urbanization ends growth of cities and economies will not necessarily end. The urbanization trends and times taken for it to occur differ from country to country however in all countries growth in he first 50% of the population is the fastest. When societies become very advanced and highly urbanized it causes suburbanization. Considered to be rural this retarded urbanization statistics. During the early 19th century urbanization slowed down due to health issues and also because woman living in urban areas had an average of 38. 3% less children. Since the mortality rate was higher than birth rate at this time the only factor that increased the urban population was rural urban migration. People moved to urban areas for better, easier and higher paying Jobs. This drain became so intense that ural populations across the globe began to decline in a drastic measure. This also caused the majority of the population to depend on a minute minority for agricultural products. The growth of urban areas then began to cease for the rural population could no longer feed the growth of the urban areas. This caused economic development and growth to cease. The current rates of urbanization in underdeveloped countries could be expected to Urbanization is occurring now faster than ever before. If it continues at this rate these areas will double their population every 1 5 years. The development of shacks is causing unsustainable and uncontrollable population growth. In contemporary under developed countries both urban and rural populations are growing. This causes a major problem for if rural inhabitants move to urban areas it will cause the city to grow in a disastrously fast manner and if they dont they will cause a large number of unemployed farmers. In the past urbanization solved the problem of rural population growth, cities took in manpower to produce goods and services in those cities this helped them modernize agriculture. Now countries are facing rapid growth rates, his makes it impossible to solve rural population increase problems. City growth rates today do not correlate with economic growth it owes mostly to rural urban migration coupled with high birth rates this gives us problems regarding land for residential areas, schools and freeways. As long as the population expands so will cities hence cities will never stop growing but urbanization would. Taking in all the facts produced about urbanization overcrowding seems to be inevitable. To prevent this developing countries should limit growth however urban planners disagree making this an impossible reality for now.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Spanish Settlement Of The West Essays - Presidency Of James K. Polk

Spanish settlement of the west International borders have always been centers of conflict, and the U.S.-Mexican border is no exception. With the European colonizing the New World, it was a matter of time before the powers collided. The Spanish settled what is today Mexico, while the English settled what is to day the United States. When the two colonial powers did meet what is today the United States' Southwest, it was not England and Spain. Rather the two powers were the United States and Mexico. Both Counties had broken off from their mother countries. The conflict that erupted between the two countries where a direct result of different nation policies. The United States had a policy of westward expansion, while Mexico had a policy of self protection. The Americans never had a written policy of expansion. What they had was the idea of "Manifest Destiny." Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States had the right to expand westward to the Pacific ocean. On the other hand, Mexico was a new country wanti ng to protect itself from outside powers. Evidence of U.S. expansion is seen with the independence of Texas from Mexico. The strongest evidence of U.S. expansion goals is with the Mexican-American War. From the beginning, the war was conceived as an opportunity for land expansion. Mexico feared the United States expansion goals. During the 16th century, the Spanish began to settle the region. The Spanish had all ready conquered and settled Central Mexico. Now they wanted to expand their land holdings north. The first expedition into the region, that is today the United States Southwest, was with Corando. Corando reported a region rich in resources, soon after people started to settle the region. The driving force behind the settlement was silver in the region. The Spanish settled the region through three major corridors; central, western and eastern. The first settlements were mainly through the central corridor. The Spanish went thorough what is now the modern Mexican state of Chihuahua into the U.S. state of New Mexico. Eventually the Spanish established the city of Santa Fe in 1689. The eastern corridor was through modern day Texas and led to the establishment of San Antonio. The eastern expansion was caused by the French expansion into modern day Louisiana. The Spanish crown wanted a buffer between the French in Louisiana and central Mexico. The last corridor of expansion was in the west, through the sea, which led to the establishment of San Diego in 1769 and Los Angles in 1781. The Spanish were not the only European power to colonize the new world; French, English and the Dutch also settled North and South America. The Spanish and the French settled what is present day U.S.-Mexico border region. The French settled modern day U.S. midwest, while the Spanish settled present day Mexico and U.S. southwest. As time went on, European influence in the region diminished.. The French sold there claims to the United States, in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase. Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821. Once the United States bought the Louisiana Purchase, western expansion began. This set the stage for major conflict in the region. The United States gained independence from England in 1775. After 1775, the Americans started to expand west. By the time Mexico gained independence, the United States had reached the Mexican frontier. Mexico needed to protect its northern borders. To protect the border region, Mexico needed to populate the area. Mexico continued the policy started by Spain of allowing Americans to settle Texas. The Americans had to follow Mexican law, religion and customs. The settlement of Texas played into the United States' expansion plans. Eventually Mexico City closed Texas from more Americans from entering. This angered the Americans wanting to enter and Americans already living in Texas. Texas revolted from Mexico in 1833. Mexicans did live in Texas, and fought for the independence of Texas. The majority of Texans were Americans and fought for their independence. After the war the Americans intentionally or non-intentionally forced most Mexicans out of Texas. The ones that stayed faced racial tensions that continue to today. After gaining independence from Mexico, Texas wanted to join the United States immediately. The U.S. Congress voted